Cognitive Processes: Attention, Perception, Memory, Thinking by Tony Malim (auth.)

By Tony Malim (auth.)

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4. Those which increase activity with yellow light but decrease with blue. , 1966) is related to the theory of colour vision developed by Hering in 1878. The 40 Cognitive Processes trichromat theory goes back to Young and von Helmholtz in the nineteenth century. Evidence for Colour Vision Theories I. The fact that white light can be generated by mixing blue, green and red light tends to support the trichromat theory. 2. After prolonged stimulation by a particular colour, afterimages can be seen in the opposing colour.

Where participants were given information on how well they had performed, even if this information was false, performance decrement was reduced. 1. 28 Cognitive Processes 3. Stimulation. Having a telephone in the room ringing at intervals, or having other people in the room, especially if they were of high status reduced performance decrement. For example, having officers in the room, when the participants were 'other ranks'. 4. Stimulant drugs such as amphetamines, administered in moderate doses, reduced performance decrement.

Amphetamines or caffeine may raise arousal; alcohol or barbiturates may lower it. (e) The difficulty of the task. The harder a task, the greater the arousal. To sum up, it has been suggested that there was an optimum level of arousal for effective performance. A variety of factors may influence arousal levels. A neurotic individual looking forward with Attentional Processes 31 anxiety to an examination misses the bus and arrives late. The supervisor appears annoyed and the paper is difficult. Such a level of arousal is piled up from various sources so that performance is drastically impaired.

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