Climate intervention : carbon dioxide removal and reliable by не указан

By не указан

The indications are all over the place that our planet is experiencing major weather swap. it really is transparent that we have to decrease the emissions of carbon dioxide and different greenhouse gases from our surroundings if we wish to steer clear of tremendously elevated probability of wear and tear from weather switch. Aggressively pursuing a software of emissions abatement or mitigation will convey effects over a timescale of many many years. How can we actively  Read more...

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Sample text

Although these supplies are fundamentally a finite resource, the fossil fuel industries have expanded exploration and improved extraction methods to allow for the production of resources previously not technically recoverable. This technical advancement has led to “reserve growth”: despite the rapid consumption of oil and natural gas, the technically recoverable reserves still in the ground during periods of technical innovation can actually increase (EIA, 2014). This phenomenon is responsible for the continued identification of large supplies of fossil fuels more than 50 years after experts predicted supplies should have peaked and been on the decline (Hubbert, 1969).

According to the International Energy Agencyn (IEA), the total electricity consumption worldwide in 2011 was approximately 20,000 TWh (a rate of ~2,300 GW), and the United States accounted for just over 4,000 TWh (a rate of ~460 GW), or about 20%, of that amount (IEA, 2013). gov/electricity/annual/), so the above numbers can be thought of as the amount of electricity produced by 2,300 large power plants globally or 460 large power plants for the United States alone. If society is to decarbon­ize the electricity system, it will be necessary to replace much of that infrastructure with carbon-free energy sources or to modify existing power plants to be carbon free.

2 com2 Note that the growth of biomass involves the extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere. 3 If large-scale use of fossil fuels continues, BECCS would have no advantage over using biofuels without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and capturing and sequestering the same amount of CO2 from fossil fuels; the net amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere would be the same. In this case, the choice of whether to add CCS to a generating plant fueled with biomass or fossil fuels should be based on economic grounds—whichever is cheaper.

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