Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, by Rick Szostak

By Rick Szostak

Classification is the fundamental first step in technology. The learn of technology, in addition to the perform of technology, will hence take advantage of a close type of alternative different types of technological know-how.

In this e-book, technology - outlined largely to incorporate the social sciences and arts - is first unpacked into its constituent components: the phenomena studied, the information used, the theories hired, the tools utilized, and the practices of scientists. those 5 components are then categorised in flip. significantly, the classifications of either thought varieties and strategies let the foremost strengths and weaknesses of other theories and strategies to be effectively discerned and in comparison. Connections throughout classifications are explored: should still definite theories or phenomena be investigated in basic terms with definite tools? what's the right functionality and type of clinical paradigms? Are definite universal error and biases in medical perform linked to specific phenomena, information, theories, or tools? The classifications element to numerous methods of enhancing either really expert and interdisciplinary examine and educating, and particularly of improving communique throughout groups of students. The classifications additionally aid an excellent approach of record class that will permit searches by way of idea and procedure used in addition to causal hyperlinks investigated.

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Both cause or influence, then, refer merely to the various ways in which a realization of one phenomenon induces a change in the realization of another. Some scholars feel that it is inappropriate for human scientists to study causation; they should instead deal only with interpretation of the meaning individuals attach to situations. In both chapters 3 and 4 it will be shown that such a distinction is both unnecessary and inadvisable. Interpretation can be embraced without rejecting causation.

What do phenomena do? 1 have been defined in terms of the role they play in human societies. Thus, each phenomenon is functionally unique. This in turn is why subsidiary 13 14 15 “It is one of my premises that most people operate as though reality does exist. It is only academics who make a living arguing the opposite” (Oakley, 2000, 20): Oakley goes on to suggest that even these academic sceptics generally treat the world as real as they perform their research. Weingart (2000) suggests that most interdisciplinarians assume an external reality that interdisciplinary analysis can enhance understanding of.

7, Hull and Ruse, 1998, part V). As noted above, there is a greater risk of the natural scientific community not having yet identified all phenomena that should be of scientific interest. Dogan and 2. Classifying Phenomena and Data 27 Table 2-1. ) Motivations Food, clothing, shelter, safety, sex, betterment, aggression, altruism, fairness, identification with group Emotions Love, anger, fear, jealousy, guilt, empathy, anxiety, fatigue, humor, joy, grief, disgust, aesthetic sense, emotional display Time Preference Individual Differences (Abilities:) Physical Abilities Physical Appearance Energy Level Intelligences Speed, strength, endurance Height, weight, symmetry Physical, mental Musical, spatial, mathematical, verbal, kinesthetic, interpersonal (Personality:) Emotionality (Stable/Moody) Conscientiousness Affection (Selfish/agreeable) Intellectual Orientation (Holistic/analytical) Other dimensions?

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